Using cell therapy to reverse disease, cure life-threatening conditions, and restore damaged organs are no longer distant goals for researchers and scientists. Cell therapy is the process of replacing damaged or diseased cells in the body with new, healthy cells. As per Inkwood Research, the global cell therapy market is expected to record a CAGR of 14.46% during the forecast period, 2022-2030, majorly attributed to the high prevalence of chronic diseases.
Further, cell therapy modulates the function of the cells through direct interaction or expression of factors or eliminating the dysfunctional or disease-causing cells using immune cells. Accordingly, relevant advancements in the perception of disease biology and major innovations in gene editing, cell culture technology, and protein engineering, have yielded a scientific environment potent enough for cell therapy to flourish.
Cell Therapy Market: Different Therapy Types
One of the central goals of cell therapy is the replacement and modification of cells. For instance, in a blood cancer patient, blood stem cells are destroyed in chemotherapy. Thereafter, they undergo a blood stem cell transplant. These could be cells collected from a separate donor or from the recovered patient before chemotherapy.
Cell therapies have become commercialized and investigational alongside being premarket-approval-exempt promising therapeutic benefits in varied disease areas.
Accordingly, here are brief insights into the different cell therapy types:
Stem Cell-Based Cell Therapies
Stem cells are a type of self-renewable, unspecialized cells made to differentiate into as many cell types as possible. The stem cells used in cell therapy are categorized into cancer stem cells (CSCs), adult stem cells (ASCs), and pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). PSCs include embryonic stem cells, epiblast stem cells, and embryonic germ cells. ASCs are undifferentiated, rare cells spread among specialized or differentiated cells in the organs of a developed organism. These include mesenchymal stem cells, neural stem cells, skin stem cells, and hematopoietic stem cells. These replenish lost cells by enabling progenitor or precursor cells and finally differentiated cells.
Whereas CSCs originate from progenitor cells or normal cells through several proposed mechanisms like gene transfer, mutations, micro-environmental factors, and epigenetic alterations. These are found within the blood and solid tumors. Conventionally, the clinical use of CSCs is in cancer settings and encompasses targeting CSCs by varied signaling pathway-interfering agents that prevent cancer relapse and growth.
Non-Stem Cell-Based Therapies
Non-stem cell-based cell therapies are somatic cells isolated from the human body. These are selected, expanded, propagated, and administered to patients for curative, preventive, or diagnostic purposes.
These include immune cells like macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and T cells, alongside pancreatic islet cells, hepatocytes, keratinocytes, chondrocytes, and fibroblasts. Also, somatic cell-based therapies are deployed as an in vivo source of cytokines and enzymes, as adoptive cell therapy (ACT) to treat cancers, as transplanted cells like pancreatic islet cells or hepatocytes to correct inborn metabolic errors, and as scaffold-free or -based cellular systems to treat cartilage lesions, burns, or ulcers.
Autologous Cell Therapy
Autologous cell therapy is a novel therapeutic intervention that utilizes cells expanded and cultured outside the body before reintroducing into the donor. The advantages of autologous cell therapy include minimized disease transmission, bio-incompatibility, and systemic immunological reactions risks associated with cells or grafts not cultivated from the individual. This therapy type has been used successfully to pressure ulcers, treat burns, enhance postoperative healing, counteract chronic inflammation, aid wound healing, and bioengineer skin substitutes. Besides, the use of autologous for corrective surgeries or cosmetic enhancements is gaining recognition as a credible form of treatment.
As per our assessment, autologous is the fastest-growing therapy type, projected to record a CAGR of 15.66% by 2030.
BMA-Derived Therapies are generally termed bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC), bone marrow concentrate (BMC), or concentrated bone marrow aspirate (cBMA). BM aspiration is performed under general or local anesthesia, wherein a liquid sample is collected from the bone marrow of the posterior or anterior iliac crest, among other bones. It has been the standard source for harvesting hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) since the 1960s. It entails several cell types, including monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, red blood cells, platelets, neutrophils, lymphocytes, MSCs, progenitor cells, and HSCs.
Why is there a Shift toward Automated Cell Therapy Manufacturing?
Cell therapy is an expanding market. A multitude of cell therapies have either received FDA approvals for specific indications or become established practices. However, as the cell therapy industry thrives, it faces the burden of creating safe, effective, and affordable products. The current expenses are high, attributed to labor costs, which account for around 50% of the cost of goods in cell therapy manufacturing.
In this regard, fully-automated cell therapy manufacturing processes can substantially minimize manual intervention and human errors. In addition, it can supplement robust processes, accelerate product delivery, regulate costs, and enhance product quality. Besides, automation can benefit cell therapy developers by improving consistency and reducing contamination risks.
Furthermore, the increasing number of cell therapies has transitioned the production of cell therapy products from a small volume to a large volume globally. Moreover, the evolution of cell therapy from clinical and academic settings to commercialization and mass production is influencing the demand for automation in manufacturing. Such aspects are evaluated to propel the global cell therapy market growth opportunities.
By Akhil Nair
Which are the key players in the global cell therapy market?
Smith & Nephew Plc, Vericel Corporation, Bristol Myers Squibb Company, Gilead Sciences Inc, etc., are the key players in the global cell therapy market.
Which is the largest revenue-generating therapy type in the global cell therapy market?
Allogeneic is the largest revenue-generating therapy type in the global cell therapy market.
Which is the fastest-growing region in the global cell therapy market?
Asia-Pacific is the fastest-growing region in the global cell therapy market.