Globally, burn cases, trauma wounds, and surgeries are on the rise. According to the Global Burden of Disease, almost 90 million burn cases were registered worldwide in 2017. The amniotic membrane’s anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring properties have been instrumental in reducing discomfort and inflammation, thereby contributing to its resurging use in multiple applications. Subsequently, the increased awareness regarding product innovations and benefits has significantly impacted AM’s expansion. As per Inkwood Research analysis, the global amniotic membrane market is projected to evolve at 7.03% of CAGR between 2022 and 2030.
Amniotic Membrane: Structure and Function
The amniotic membrane comprises several layers and can be divided into two different layers, the chorion and amnion, further separated by a jelly-like layer. It entails three material types, regenerative molecules, biologically active cells, and collagen and extracellular matrix. Collagen adds structural strength to the membrane, whereas extracellular matrix provides structure and has specialized proteins like laminins, fibronectin, proteoglycans, etc.
Further, biologically active cells comprise stem cells that revitalize new cellular materials within the membrane lining. Regenerative molecules are central to growth and healing, encompassing metalloproteinases, platelet-derived growth factors, and fibroblast growth factors.
Amniotic Membrane Market by Application
Amniotic membrane (AM) has varied applications in regenerative medicine. Over the years, its clinical applications have advanced from corneal and skin repair to solubilized powder injections, amniotic cytokine extract, and micronized dehydrated membrane to regenerate tendons, cartilage, and muscles. Also, AM is a source of several stem cells types and is a highly biocompatible natural scaffold. Thus, with the increasing number of reconstructive and cosmetic surgeries globally, the surgical wounds segment is expected to continue its revenue growth trend throughout the forecast period.
Some of the prominent and resurging AM applications are:
Ophthalmology is the fastest-growing segment in the amniotic membrane application market. It has become one of the key adjuvant treatments in ophthalmic surgery, with advancements in tissue engineering, ease of use, enhanced obtaining process, and tectonic properties. Additionally, tissue engineering has enabled its use in classic forms and drops.
2. Skin Graft
Amniotic membrane was first used as a skin substitute in 1910. As an alternative for the dressing of skin graft donor sites, it offers substantial benefits like decreased number of dressing changes and enhanced wound healing process.
Additionally, it has similar features as human skin since it originates from ectoderm. As per studies, it is further evaluated to prevent associated infections, traumas, and dehydration conventionally observed in disrupted skin wounds. Moreover, AM serves as a cost-efficient material for wound dressing.
3. Sports Medicine
AM has promising applications in sports medicine, since it is a source of highly organized collagen, matrix proteins, immunomodulators, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic cytokines, and pluripotent cells. When applied as tissue engineering scaffolds, such aspects enhance tissue organization in treating and healing arthritic joints.
Also, around 14 companies offer commercial AM products despite sports medicine leaning towards animal and in vitro studies. Studies state that such products’ formulation changes their mechanical and biological properties, and an in-depth understanding of differences will enable the use of AM-derived products in sports medicine research.
Product Innovations: Amniotic Membrane Market Trend 2022
The development of various preservation methods has helped overcome AM’s limitations like high disease transmission risk and limited shelf life. Alongside, commercially available amniotic products implement dehydration preservation methods or cryopreservation methods to sustain the regenerative properties of amniotic membranes.
Moreover, there are over 80 commercial placenta membrane products available in the market. Some prominent firms operating in the market include Katena Products Inc, Bio-Tissue Inc, MIMEDX, Amino Technology LLC, etc.
The two leading AM products are cryopreserved AM and dehydrated AM, with the former harboring the largest revenue share in the product segment.
Dehydrated Amniotic Membranes
These are traditionally used in surgeries associated with ocular surface reconstruction. They are obtained from the human placenta surface after a healthy birth, wherein the donor tissue is evaluated for communicable diseases. However, matching donors is not a requisite since donor tissue is absorbed through the healing process.
In addition, dehydration enables AM tissue storage in a shelf-stable state and its active biological components preservation, required for medical uses. Dehydrated AM is used for several applications, the most common being treating neurotrophic corneal ulcer, a non-healing ocular surface defect. Besides, it can be employed to minimize scar tissue during ocular surface healing.
Cryopreserved Amniotic Membranes
These retain the specific biologic matrix that facilitates AM’s regenerative healing and anti-inflammatory properties, leading to fewer clinic visits and long-term relief. This is because cryopreserved amniotic membranes last longer on the eye. Also, these are FDA-approved for their anti-scarring and anti-angiogenesis properties. Moreover, cryopreserved AMs are advantageous compared to other therapies in terms of corneal defects.
The Progress Here on:
Amniotic membrane has had clinical applications for 100 years. Despite a slow start in clinical use, it has made inroads into several fields of medicine and surgery in the last 50 years. Besides, its beneficial properties and growing availability due to innovative storage methods offer lucrative growth opportunities for the global amniotic membrane market.
How does the amniotic membrane dissolve in eye surfaces?
The corneal tissue slowly absorbs the amniotic membrane, wherein regenerative stem cells start repairing the damaged ocular surface. Therefore, the membrane is completely dissolved within 7-10 days.
What is the key property of a dehydrated human amniotic membrane allograft?
One of the key properties of a dehydrated human amniotic membrane allograft is its intact extracellular matrix that advances soft tissue repair, reconstruction, and replacement.